Kogeki Bobi – The Unity of Offense and Defense

Kogeki  is a term meaning to attack or cut down and refers to offense and Bobi means defense. The term “Ko Bo Ichi” or “Kogeki Bobi” refers to the principle that offense and defense are one. Hundreds of examples exist that can be used to illustrate this concept.

Upper body shifting to defend and attack simultaneouslyOne example that collapses the distinction between Offense (Ko) and Defense (Bo) is Upper Body Shifting (Jo Taisabaki – shown right). Here, the body rotates in defense, and the same rotation drives the attacking punch.  Using this type of technique takes a thorough understanding of timing (Hyoshi) , distance (Ma-ai),  Initiative (Sen No Sen or Tai No Sen) and most obviously, confidence.

Blocks used to deflect an attack are used to break an arm at the same time , seriously degrade the opponent’s offensive capability, and collapse his structure (Kuzushi). In Kendo a number of terms describe the concept of attack and defense being equal by taking the center line where a downward cut is used to both block or deflect the opponent’s sword while striking at the same time. Examples include:

  • Kiri Otoshi – ‘Dropping Cut’ from Itto Ryu 
  • Gasshi Uchi – from Yagyu Shinkage Ryu
  • Hitotsu Tachi – ‘One sword’ from Kashima Shinto Ryu

Offense and defense can be considered as two separate entities, part of a spectrum, or something inseparable.

Short Time Slices Blur Distinctions

At the tactical and technical levels of strategy, smaller and smaller time slices between offense and defense transitions can merge the two. To fight this way requires strong ability, mental fortitude and flexibility, which shows a high degree of understanding. I remember when I was first introduced to fighting using Sanchin Dachi, a very short upright stance. A visiting senior instructor from another Dojo in Kumamoto was training with us. I learned very quickly that close in-fighting is incredibly fast and combined offense and defense at the same time. Punches were sticky and curved around my blocks like a snake only strike and at the same time prevent me from retaking the initiative. I came away with a very important lesson. Never underestimate small movements, and offense and defense really are the same.

There are many other examples of this concept. These short paragraphs do ill justice to the depth of this area of study. Look into your Kata and find it.

Budotheory.ca.

Excerpted and adapted from: Budo Theory: Exploring Martial Arts Principles

by Richard Rowell

Exploring Kata Horizons: Tools to Change Your Perspective

Kata - Ways to Study

You study Kata diligently, for years, and just when you feel we are getting a handle on it, your Sensei shows you one little thing that gives you that slap in the forehead feeling. “Why didn’t I see that?” Suddenly your understanding of the Kata expands into a whole new world of possibility. Your perspective changes as if you climbed to the top of a tower and abruptly the horizon is much further away than before. You can see new vista’s that were not apparent from the bottom of the tower.

We can learn two important lessons from the horizon analogy:

1. The horizon is a point we cannot see beyond, but hints that there is something beyond its limits.

2. What limits our ability to see is that the horizon is always relative to view. If you are in a hole, your horizon is going to be close. You might want to change perspective and climb a hill.

You can sit at the bottom of the hill and listen to Kata - Kasushi - hidden techniquessomeone else describe what they see, or you can walk up yourself. Nothing compares to the feeling when you discover a principle or Hidden Technique (Kakushi Waza) through your own effort—when your Sensei smiles as you both recognize that you have ‘glimpsed the Ox.’

My Sensei always stressed that you had to look at Kata in more than one dimension. He showed me that there were many dimensions to Kata. So the first thing to remember about Kata is that one dimensional minds have a hard time comprehending that there may be more than one dimension.

There are many types of horizons.

Some Common Dimensions of Kata

Sequence – The obvious first dimension. When you Kata - expanding horizonslearn a Kata realize that you are receiving only a small portion of the Kata by learning its sequence—your first horizon. For the beginner, just understanding sequence is the challenge.

Bilateral Symmetry – Using both sides of the body equally. To develop bilateral ability. Many Kata only show one side or exhibit a decided “handedness.” Don’t fall into the trap of limiting your technique to one side, or your strong side. Expand your horizon. In the military, I learned to shoot my rifle on both my strong side and weak side, so I could adapt to circumstances and use cover effectively. Loading a magazine with your weak hand and reloading a gun with only one hand are modern expressions of Kata. What if you were injured? Kata is no different, being able to adapt to circumstance during a throw is a sign of a well-balanced budoka.

Obvious Technique – The obvious movements such as a block, punch, kick, etc. You can spend a lot of training time getting this right. Depending on your horizon, this can be the extent of your understanding. But is there something beyond your horizon that may add to these techniques?

Timing – What kind of timing can be used with each technique or group to techniques in your Kata?

Analysis (Bunkai) – This is the systematic exploration of the application of the movements in the Kata.

Variation (Henka) – This expansion in horizon is related to considering how you might vary the outcome of a technique. Some examples might be Compression (putting two techiques together, e.g. where a punch also becomes a block), Expansion (creating two techniques from one movement. e.g. I remember my Sensei showing me one movement that became three blocks instead of one. ), varying direction, severity of technique, consideration against multiple opponents. These are just a few ways that variation can be looked at.

Reverse Techniques (Gyaku Waza) – For every technique in your Kata is there a counter or several? It would be wise to understand these in case the techniques are applied to you.

Transitions – between movements can hold Throws (Nage), Finishing Techniques (Todome) and many beautiful Shifting (Sabaki) movements to avoid your opponent’s strength.

These are only a few ways that you can elevate you perspective and gain new horizons with your Kata.

Tools to Gain Meaning

There are a number of tools at your disposal to expand your horizons as you research your Kata:
Interpretation – Narrow or broad. Interpreting Kata is largely based on how the Kata was transmitted from teacher to student, experience, and inference of movement and technique from other sources of information. Don’t let your horizon be too narrow. “This is the way I learned it and there is no other way.” We have all done this, and many can stay stuck with this limited horizon.

Inference – is a hugely important aspect of martial arts. “Ichi o Kiite, Ju o Shiru”—hear one but understand ten. Inference means to arrive at a conclusion by reasoning from evidence. There are two main methods of inference—inductive and deductive reasoning.

Inductive Reasoning – works from observation toward generalizations and theories, and is called a “bottom-up” approach.  Inductive reason starts from specific observations, looks for patterns and regularities, and formulates a hypothesis that is developed into a general theory or conclusion. In other words, we observe a number of specific instances and from them infer a general principle or law. Inductive reasoning tends to be open-ended and exploratory, especially during the observation phase.

A concrete example of inductive processes could be looking at a specific Engagement Posture (Kamae) and noting certain features that could be used in other postures, or how it could be used in a different context. Another would be learning to use your hips in a punch and then using the same approach to other techniques. At the small scale of an Engagement Posture or Punch, you develop principles or theories that aggregate into more encompassing principles and these continue to aggregate. In the case of Jigoro Kano’s principle of maximum efficient use of mind and body, his principle is the culmination of an inductive approach in which many technical observations led him to infer this single principle that encompassed Judo. The principle of Duality (Kyo-Jitsu) is also inferred using inductive reasoning.

Deduction – works from the more general to the more specific—sometimes called a “top-down” approach. For example, we might see and understand the basic idea of a punch from a technical point of view, but we may be able to deduce greater efficiency by testing a specific hypothesis we make, e.g. will my punch be stronger if I keep my elbow in, or if I use my hips in a slightly different manner? You can then test this hypothesis in training and determine for yourself whether it is true or not.

Independent Research – If you rely on someone else to provide the information about a movement, you will never get a complete picture. You can certainly learn from them, but you need to integrate understanding with application, and then induce your own principles that satisfy your level of experience. A single Kata may have evolved through different styles and teachers, and may appear very different from what you have been taught. Looking at the differences can lead you to new bunkai, but also give you a feeling for why movements diverged, or create new questions worth exploring.

Paradigm Evaluation – Re-evaluating your paradigms is always useful when studying Kata. As an example, when I first learned a Kata as a less experienced Budoka, I thought that offensive movements were followed sequentially with defensive movements, followed by offensive movements, etc. You blocked then you punched, or vice versa.  As my experience increased, I realized offence and defence were part of a spectrum of Duality and that spectrum was one and the same thing. My understanding of offense and defense changed. A block could be used to attack and a punch could be used in defence. Suddenly my paradigm shifted from one of offence and defence to offence can be defence and defence can be offence. This led me to new discoveries in my Kata.

As a more concrete example, in one Kata I was studying there was a movement using an Upper Body Shifting (Jo Tai Sabaki). The Kata showed no outward indication of attack and I thought it was just a rotation to avoid a punch. When my Sensei showed me that the body rotation could not only evade the punch, but also break the opponent’s elbow using my shoulder, I suddenly realized that all techniques had elements of both attack and defence in them at the same time. I then correctly inferred through induction that there were many other examples of these types of techniques in my Kata that I had not seen before.

Getting into a habit of re-evaluating your understanding of a Kata, or even a single movement within one, is a good habit to fall into. If you are aware that your horizon is limited, that you are fallible in your opinions, biased in your thinking and probably weigh evidence based on personal preference; that is the first step in being open to new revelations.

Frustration – This is personally my favorite. It can include technical frustration (I can’t seem to get the movement right), to application (it doesn’t feel right or I can’t make it work against an opponent), to even understanding why a particular movement is done (that makes no sense). If you are satisfied with your first interpretation of a movement in a Kata, I would say you are missing 99 percent of what it can teach you. Frustration motivates you to dig deeper.

Outside and Inside – Omote and Ura

There are several terms used in the Japanese martial arts that describe Hidden Techniques (Kakushi Waza). Kata can be arranged by level of complexity and understanding. Some styles divide their teachings into Shoden, Chuden, and Okuden (Beginning Teaching, Middle Teaching and the Interior or Secret Teachings).

When studying Bunkai, be aware that there are the Kata - Omote Uraobvious applications of a technique, and others that take some searching to find. The Outside (Omote) surface of the Kata may look simple and seem not worth looking at in any more depth, but beware—you can be missing some of the most interesting and challenging aspects of the Kata.

Some of the seemingly simplest Kata are by far the deepest. The unobvious is far and away the largest aspect of Kata to study, not the obvious outer surface. As your sphere of knowledge about your martial art increases, penetrating into the Inside (Ura) can explode your understanding.

Many Kata have elements of animals and symbolic meanings. For example, one Kata may emulate a heron, bird, or a certain technique like a dragon tongue. As a biologist, watching herons gave me insight to the person who had a flash of inspiration watching these birds and developed the Kata Rohai. There are a number of famous stories of sudden insight. The crescent spear used in Hozoin Ryu was conceived in a flash of insight when its founder Hozoin Kakuzenbo In’ei is said to have seen the reflection of the crescent moon shining on a pond.  He imagined a spear with a cross blade (Kama Yari) would be more effective in fighting.

Symbolic meanings can represent salutation to the four cardinal directions, flying birds, clouds, thunder, lightning and the list goes on. Sometime these are literal, but many times they are used to impart a feeling or understanding to the technique. The important thing here is to gain an understanding of the symbol and use it to understand the technique, its origin, and its application.

No matter what martial art you study, the single most important thing to explore is Kata. It has been handed down from generation to generation. Both winners and losers—the people that survived combat and those that died in it—have helped develop the ideas found in Kata. Kata is the root of all the transmission from generation to generation. It is the seed or model  (See Article Kata – Looking at it two Ways) by which we can grow a great tree, apply a useful tool, or create a beautiful sculpture.

It is not important to know a great number of Kata. Learn to penetrate one or two deeply. This procedure will enable you to develop Insight (Kan) into the Kata you research. It will also give you the tools to penetrate the Inside (Ura) of others not only in your martial art, but outside it as well.

Some advocate gathering as much information about as many different martial arts as possible, by learning as many Kata as possible. I firmly believe this is a fundamentally wrong approach in the study of Budo, and results in a person with only a superficial understanding about many subjects. He is a master of nothing. By studying hard and penetrating as deeply as you can, you attain the freedom you are seeking.

Make sure you are learning real Kata and not rubbish someone has thrown together from limited horizons. Trace your Kata back to the Meijin who developed them, and understand their evolution to when it was given to you. Search for the Logic (Ronri) of the Kata. It is a tragedy wasting precious time in meaningless pursuit (Muda – See Article Without Reason, Inconsistent and a Man Without a Horse ).

Challenge your ability, understanding, and realization Kata - find meaninghorizons by changing the way you think about Kata. Changing your perspective by looking at different dimensions of Kata will never lead to boredom. Doubling the size of your horizon, means that you have four times the area to explore.

by Rick Rowell

If you would like to read more about Budo Concepts, consider purchasing Budo Theory: Exploring Martial Arts Principles.

 

Judo Meijin

Judo Meijin

Fortunately for us there is historical film footage of both Jigoro Kano and Kyozu Mifune that are a joy to watch and learn from. These visual references offer the serious student a wealth of quality information if they are diligent, particularily if they explore Variation (Henka) related to their martial art. Look them up on Youtube

While following the footage there are many avenues of exploration in techniques that can be used in your own study. They have definitely expanded my understanding of Technique (Waza), Collapsing Structure (Kuzushi), Timing (Hyoshi), and helped me understand my own Kata.

Terrain – A Tactical Analysis Of The Competition Area

Competition - tactical analysis

For the competition minded, a tactical analysis of the match areas for Karate, Judo, or Kendo can yield some interesting insights to how to deal with an opponent. The competition area is flat and usually square so there is no terrain to hide in or use for cover, but there is terrain that limits or enhances movement. If you have studied the game of Go then you will be able to appreciate corners, edges, and the center in both defence and offence.

Often in competition, you see two contestants circling each other, or one circling the other. Sometimes when the clock is ticking down, the person that is ahead in points circles to avoid combat and wastes time to win the match. The person that is behind wants to force interaction to try and catch up, but lets his opponent win at his strategy of letting time run out.

Edges

By eliminating opportunity for your opponent to circle, you can immediately and effectively limit the opponent’s freedom of movement to half the competition area (if he declines to attack) simply by shifting to cut off the circling (see figure). By shifting, you are using the edges of the competition area to support your flank and limit the opponent’s movement to that side. He is forced to circle the other way, attack or withdraw. Edges can also be effectively used to limit a strong opponent’s to attack on his preferred side (left or right).

Corners

A few more shifts and you can maneuver him into a corner. When your opponent is in a corner, he has to divide his attention between you and the match area boundary, which invites a mental Gap (Suki) that can be exploited if you chose to attack.

In a corner, two sides restrict movement. Your opponent has two options; he can either attack, or avoid. Avoidance can take two forms, 1. He can step out of the match area in which case he will get penalized, or 2. he can try to slip out one side. Using maneuver and just offering combat by shifting to block the opponent’s circling means you have degraded the opponent’s freedom of maneuver. Further degrading it into a corner now allows you anticipate a reaction—coming at you, stepping out, or in a moment of indecision your chance to attack. Depending on the opponent and his strength and weaknesses you can choose to attack or counterattack based on your preference.

Competition - tactical analysis

Using the center, edges and corners of the match area tactically.

Centre

Taking the centre of the match area can create a psychological advantage right from the start.  It also does not impede you because you are not affected by edges as much as the opponent who is forced toward them. Competition area geometry of the  at the tactical level can have great effects on the outcome of the match if you can capitalize on it—but first you must be aware of it. There are other ways to analyze the competition area tactically, I leave it up to you to discover.

Considering Terrain

One factor that we typically loose sight of in the Dojo in Tactics is the effective use of terrain. Not all combat is likely to occur in an area were there is a clear unobstructed area to maneuver, and terrain can be an advantage or disadvantage, depending on how you utilize or fail to utilize your environment.

Take these ideas outside competition and consider how your environment can create advantages and disadvantages. Edges such as a wall can limit movement but also protect your back in a scenario with several opponents. Many Kata consider confined spaces, such as using a sword in a narrow hallway.

Terrain is a major consideration in modern tactics, why should it be any different in the martial arts? There are literally countless examples of using terrain to advantage during combat. As one example, 17th century swordsman Araki Mataemon used a bamboo grove to his advantage while fighting Yamada Shiryukan who specialized in the Kusari-Gama (a sickle with a chain and weight attached). Yamada could not use the chain and weight effectively with all the bamboo stems and died at the hands of Araki. Mataemon functionally dislocated the Kusari-Gama’s advantage by luring his opponent into the bamboo. He used terrain to his advantage.

The use of terrain in combat includes, barriers limiting the opponent’s movement or protection against the opponent’s techniques. You can use terrain to hide your entire person or just part of your body etc. You may even find some of these ideas in your Kata. Karate Kata show ways of using sand, rocks, farm tools, boat oars and even turtle shells as ways to use the environment and terrain to your advantage, as well as night fighting and fighting on boats.

Application of some of these techniques include fighting along narrow pathways between rice paddies. Iaido has Kata that reflect limitations imposed by the environment, such as narrow hallways, obstacles overhead, and even friendly noncombatants. Even some Engagement Postures (Kamae) in Iaido are related to environmental constraints (e.g. Hasso no Kamae and Waki no Kamae).

Practice in different environments to get used to the variation in terrain. Not all fights will be in areas that are free from obstruction or allow freedom of movement. Think about how your martial art uses these ideas in relation to individual techniques, tactics, and a combination of both.

by Rick Rowell

Check out Budo Theory: Exploring Martial Arts Principles  for more ways to improve you martial journey.

Ways to look at Budo – Great Way, Small Way

Different ways of looking at the Way

Big Things Can Come in Small Packages and Vice Versa

I reviewed some old notes scribbled down hastily after a lengthy conversation with Akutagawa Sensei, and I found a little gem to share. We were discussing the concept of Do or ‘Path’ as it relates to Budo. Sensei Akutagawa is no longer with us, but the echoes of his thoughts in my notes allowed me to reflect on these ideas after all these years, and he still teaches me.

Daido - Great RoadDaido can mean a main street or highway, but in our Budo context, it can mean a great principle. Sensei described Daido to me as the main stem, like the trunk of a tree, the spiritual or intangible truths, the core of our being and our martial journey.

He contrasted this with the Small Way – Shodo, by comparing it to a single branch tip—to a single technique, action, or experience.

We all start our training in martial arts by learning little truths; for example, how to make a fist, or hold a sword. That little branch tip of information that your Sensei shares with you, along with others, merge into a twig that encompasses how we use our fist.

Shodo - the branchEven though I learned these small ways from my teachers, there was always something about my teachers, something deeper that made me want to learn from them. Was it their knowledge, wisdom, ability, and confidence? Yes, all that, but there was something else. There were all these intangibles that I wanted to acquire—something deeper that I could somehow feel but not experience directly. I had to train.

But I saw that deeper intangible in their Shodo—their technique, the way they helped me learn, the way they were hard with me when I needed that too. Another interesting thing that Akutagawa Sensei said to me was that Shodo is always inspired from Daido. The beauty and strength we see and appreciate in a well-executed technique is created from something deeper in the individual. We see only the downy tip of that creation, and yet, as a beginner it was technique that inspired us to want to learn more. To capture that something is what drives us to train and strive.

As I think about these ideas, I realize that Shodo gives me the pathway I can use to understand larger principles in myself from a single technique. Will the pathway be exactly the same as my Sensei’s? No. It may merge with a different branch, just like all trees are different. But if I follow it back far enough, my branch will merge into a single trunk and then into the soil. That soil is the same soil my Sensei’s tree grew from.

We spend a lot of our time out in the branch tips seeking new technique, action and experience. As we struggle to integrate these into larger meanings in our life, we realize that our roots are embedded in the same matrix as everyone else.

The point of this essay is that our teachers show us only the tips of their branches—their Shodo—because we can never directly experience the deeper core of their being. When our tree touches theirs, a new twig emerges in our tree. That new downy branch tip can sometimes drive our understanding straight down to the trunk like a lightning bolt, can whither, stay dormant, swirl around for years in the high branches, or reach further down to something deeper—the core of our being.

We need to experience the Small Ways (Shodo) of our teachers to seek the Great Way (Daido) underneath, and we need the Great Way in us to inspire us to search for the techniques, actions, and experiences that shape who we are. When Shodo becomes Daido is something hard to figure out. One can’t exist without the other.

Our techniques, actions, and experiences (Shodo) are created from something deeper in us (Daido). At the same time the Great Way in us is inspired by the Small Ways of our teachers. And that is what we call the Way.

Budo Theory: Exploring Martial Arts Principles

by Rick Rowell